In this article I am going to discuss about Packet Switching Vs Circuit Switching so keep reading this article till the end to know more about this.
There are two methods of switching that are used to link various communication devices with one another which are circuit switching and packet switching. However, the main difference between the two switches is that circuit switching is connection based, as compared to packet switch which is connectionless. Circuits and packet switches are the most common method of switching. In this blog, we will understand how switching types affect the transfer of data from sender to receiver.
Table of Contents
Circuit switching was designed in 1878 to send telephone calls on the dedicated channel. The method is used when a dedicated channel wants to be established. It’s classified into two categories. One is a full duplex and the other a half-duplex.
Basically, it is connection-oriented. In circuit switching, designed a dedicated communication path from the sender to the receiver. A link is necessary to send and receive data. Between the sender and receiver physical path establishes. Telephone communication is an e.g. of circuit switching. As a matter of fact, bandwidth is stable in circuit switching.
Due to the dedicated circuit, the data loss and chances of error are less but the loss of bandwidth takes place between the sender and receiver. It’s because the same path is not being used by other senders. Circuit switching is completely transparent. Let us understand the advantages and disadvantages of circuit switching in detail.
Advantages and disadvantages of circuit switching:
- It uses fixed as well as full bandwidth for the call duration.
- circuit switching is suitable for long and continuous communication.
- No time is wasted while switching.
- A dedicated channel is used it increases the quality of communication.
- The rate is fixed in which data is transmitted.
- A dedicated circuit gives a guarantee for data delivery.
- More bandwidth is required because dedicated channels are used.
- A dedicated circuit is almost impossible to transfer other data even if the channels are free.
- For the establishment of a physical layer, so the time used by the two stations is too long.
- Circuit switching is very expensive.
- For each connection, circuit switching is established.
- In the circuit switching method, both ends must operate at the same rate during the whole connection.
- The network may be unstable during the crisis.
Example of circuit switching:
The diagram of this e.g. shows how the circuit establishment takes place between telephones. Telephones join by a circuit switch connection. Switches and their connection with other telephone boxes show by the boxes. While the blue lines indicate the connection between offices.
Circles indicate that a link is stimulating in the switching office. Between the communication groups, a dedicated link is set. It remains as long as communication between parties remains.
It is a connectionless service. In which the messages are grouped is called a packet. Each packet is transferred from the source to the destination point in the form of individual packets. A dedicated path between the sender and receiver is not mandatory in packet switching. The actual data transfer is in the form of payloads.
When the packets arrive at the destination point, it has to put packets in the right order. Chances of data loss are greater in it. There might be a chance that packets arrive in the wrong order. Packet switching does not need a dedicated path between sender and receiver. Along with packet switching, bandwidth is free.
A physical connection is not established before the transmission start. In packet switches, the messages are divided into parts known as packets. It is a connectionless network. Each package is grouped into two categories one payload and the other a header. The header contains the addressing information and the payloads contain the actual message. Let us determine the advantages and disadvantages of packet switching.
Advantages and disadvantages of packet switching:
- During the transfer of the packets, multiple users use the same channel.
- Bandwidth is used more in packet switching because various users can transfer the packets from the same channel.
- High data transmission and is independent of travel.
- Unlike no delay in packet delivery.
- If the link fails it does not affect the data delivery in the form of packets.
- There is no requirement for massive storage space.
- whereas it is cost-effective as compared with circuit switching.
- Data retransmission takes place in case of any problem.
- Packet switching ensures reliable communication.
- There is no need to establish a path so the data transmission is very efficient.
- Data packets may be lost during transmission.
- when connection issues take place information can be lost. Or there is a delay in this type of communication.
- Furthermore, packets are delivered very easily when complex protocols are utilized.
- Reliable transfer protocols are mandatory.
- High-quality voice calls do not use packet switches. However, there is a lot of delay in this communication.
- when the network is overloaded, packets are delayed. This needs retransmission of dropped packet by the sender.
- Under heavy use, there is a delay in the process.
- It depends on the range of complex protocols.
Example of packet switching:
The given e.g. diagram indicates that all the packets are sent with the header address. That shows their final destination. A sequence of reassembly at the destination computer is also indicated by the header address. So, that the packets are rearranged in the correct order.
In packet switching, one frame is specified to have details of how many frames reach. For this reason, the recipient computer knows if any packets dropped or failed. If the frame fails to arrive recipient’s computer sends a notification to the sender asking to resent the missing packet.
Difference Between Circuit Switching And Packet Switching:
I have discussed Packet Switching Vs Circuit Switching below:
|In circuit switching, each unit knows the dedicated path which is provided by the source.
|Each data unit only knows the destination address. Indeed, routers choose the intermediate paths.
|Circuit switching, data transfer in three phases i.e.
· Firstly is the Establishment of a connection
· Secondly is Data transfer
· Thirdly is the Connection break
|As compared to circuit switching in packet switching, data transfer takes place directly.
|Between data units the delay in transferring is uniform.
|Unlike in packet switching, the delay between data units is not uniform.
|It is more reliable.
|Data is transferred to the source system.
|In packet switching, data transfer takes place at all the intermediate nodes also including the source system.
|Resources are going to waste in circuit switches.
|On the contrary, resources are going to wastage in packet switching less.
|Circuit switching is not storing and forwarding technique.
|Packet switching is a storing and forwarding technique.
|Because the bandwidth is fixed for data transmission that is why Resources are limited in circuit switching.
|The resources are not reserved because the bandwidth is shared among all users.
|Transmission of data takes place by the source only.
|In contrast, Data transmission takes place not only by the source but also by the intermediate routers.
|For bilateral traffic, circuit switching is not suitable.
|On the contrary, Packet switching is suitable for bilateral traffic management.
|While congestion occurs during the connection establishment phase, it might be possible request is made for the channel, but the channel is already occupied.
|Packet switching and congestion occur during the data transfer phase, and a large number of packets come in a short time.
In circuit switching, the recording of packets is not possible.
|Recording of packets is possible in packet switching.
|The charge is based only on the distance and time, not on the traffic in the network.
|In packet switching, the charge depends not only on the number of bytes but also on the time of connection.
|It does not support the store and forward transmission.
|Packet switching supports the store and forward transmission.
|In circuit switching, call setup is necessary.
|No call setup is necessary for packet switching.
|Between the source and destination, there is a physical path.
|There is no physical path between source and destination.
|Each packet follows the same path.
|In packet switching each packet follows any route.
|Circuit switching requires a simple protocol for transmission.
|It uses a complex protocol.
|In the circuit, switching is based on the physical layer connection.
|Packet switching does not need a physical connection.
Frequently asked questions:
Qno1: Is circuit switching bandwidth fixed or varying?
Ans: In the circuit, switching Bandwidth is stable.
Qno2: Which type of method is used In a traditional telephone system?
Ans: circuit switching
Qno3: Ethernet is the example of which switching?
Ans: Ethernet is an example of packet switching.